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10.3389_fmolb.2021.637559.pdf (2.11 MB)

Virus Detection: A Review of the Current and Emerging Molecular and Immunological Methods

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submitted on 2024-04-29, 09:40 and posted on 2024-04-29, 09:40 authored by A. Cassedy, A. Parle-McDermott, R. O’Kennedy

Viruses are ubiquitous in the environment. While many impart no deleterious effects on their hosts, several are major pathogens. This risk of pathogenicity, alongside the fact that many viruses can rapidly mutate highlights the need for suitable, rapid diagnostic measures. This review provides a critical analysis of widely used methods and examines their advantages and limitations. Currently, nucleic-acid detection and immunoassay methods are among the most popular means for quickly identifying viral infection directly from source. Nucleic acid-based detection generally offers high sensitivity, but can be time-consuming, costly, and require trained staff. The use of isothermal-based amplification systems for detection could aid in the reduction of results turnaround and equipment-associated costs, making them appealing for point-of-use applications, or when high volume/fast turnaround testing is required. Alternatively, immunoassays offer robustness and reduced costs. Furthermore, some immunoassay formats, such as those using lateral-flow technology, can generate results very rapidly. However, immunoassays typically cannot achieve comparable sensitivity to nucleic acid-based detection methods. Alongside these methods, the application of next-generation sequencing can provide highly specific results. In addition, the ability to sequence large numbers of viral genomes would provide researchers with enhanced information and assist in tracing infections.

Other Information

Published in: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
See article on publisher's website: https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.637559

History

Language

  • English

Publisher

Frontiers

Publication Year

  • 2021

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Hamad Bin Khalifa University
  • Qatar Foundation

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