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Medical Physics - 2023 - Yoganathan - Virtual pretreatment patient‐specific quality assurance of volumetric modulated arc.pdf (2.31 MB)

Virtual pretreatment patient‐specific quality assurance of volumetric modulated arc therapy using deep learning

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journal contribution
submitted on 2024-01-10, 06:00 and posted on 2024-01-14, 12:09 authored by SA Yoganathan, Sharib Ahmed, Satheesh Paloor, Tarraf Torfeh, Souha Aouadi, Noora Al‐Hammadi, Rabih Hammoud

Background

Automatic patient‐specific quality assurance (PSQA) is recently explored using artificial intelligence approaches, and several studies reported the development of machine learning models for predicting the gamma pass rate (GPR) index only.

Purpose

To develop a novel deep learning approach using a generative adversarial network (GAN) to predict the synthetic measured fluence.

Methods and materials

A novel training method called “dual training,” which involves the training of the encoder and decoder separately, was proposed and evaluated for cycle GAN (cycle‐GAN) and conditional GAN (c‐GAN). A total of 164 VMAT treatment plans, including 344 arcs (training data: 262, validation data: 30, and testing data: 52) from various treatment sites, were selected for prediction model development. For each patient, portal‐dose‐image‐prediction fluence from TPS was used as input, and measured fluence from EPID was used as output/response for model training. Predicted GPR was derived by comparing the TPS fluence with the synthetic measured fluence generated by the DL models using gamma evaluation of criteria 2%/2 mm. The performance of dual training was compared against the traditional single‐training approach. In addition, we also developed a separate classification model specifically designed to detect automatically three types of errors (rotational, translational, and MU‐scale) in the synthetic EPID‐measured fluence.

Results

Overall, the dual training improved the prediction accuracy of both cycle‐GAN and c‐GAN. Predicted GPR results of single training were within 3% for 71.2% and 78.8% of test cases for cycle‐GAN and c‐GAN, respectively. Moreover, similar results for dual training were 82.7% and 88.5% for cycle‐GAN and c‐GAN, respectively. The error detection model showed high classification accuracy (>98%) for detecting errors related to rotational and translational errors. However, it struggled to differentiate the fluences with “MU scale error” from “error‐free” fluences.

Conclusion

We developed a method to automatically generate the synthetic measured fluence and identify errors within them. The proposed dual training improved the PSQA prediction accuracy of both the GAN models, with c‐GAN demonstrating superior performance over the cycle‐GAN. Our results indicate that the c‐GAN with dual training approach combined with error detection model, can accurately generate the synthetic measured fluence for VMAT PSQA and identify the errors. This approach has the potential to pave the way for virtual patient‐specific QA of VMAT treatments.

Other Information

Published in: Medical Physics
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
See article on publisher's website: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.16567

Funding

Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.

History

Language

  • English

Publisher

Wiley

Publication Year

  • 2023

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Hamad Medical Corporation
  • National Center for Cancer Care and Research - HMC

Methodology

A novel training method called “dual training,” which involves the training of the encoder and decoder separately, was proposed and evaluated for cycle GAN (cycle‐GAN) and conditional GAN (c‐GAN). A total of 164 VMAT treatment plans, including 344 arcs (training data: 262, validation data: 30, and testing data: 52) from various treatment sites, were selected for prediction model development. For each patient, portal‐dose‐image‐prediction fluence from TPS was used as input, and measured fluence from EPID was used as output/response for model training. Predicted GPR was derived by comparing the TPS fluence with the synthetic measured fluence generated by the DL models using gamma evaluation of criteria 2%/2 mm. The performance of dual training was compared against the traditional single‐training approach. In addition, we also developed a separate classification model specifically designed to detect automatically three types of errors (rotational, translational, and MU‐scale) in the synthetic EPID‐measured fluence.