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Validation of Polygenic Risk Scores for Coronary Heart Disease in a Middle Eastern Cohort Using Whole Genome Sequencing

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submitted on 2023-05-24, 11:55 and posted on 2023-05-24, 12:20 authored by Mohamad Saad, Ayman El-Menyar, Khalid Kunji, Ehsan Ullah, Jassim Al Suwaidi, Iftikhar J. Kullo

Background

Enthusiasm for using polygenic risk scores (PRSs) in clinical practice is tempered by concerns about their portability to diverse ancestry groups, thus motivating genome-wide association studies in non-European ancestry cohorts.

Methods

We conducted a genome-wide association study for coronary heart disease in a Middle Eastern cohort using whole genome sequencing and assessed the performance of 6 PRSs developed with methods including LDpred (PGS000296), metaGRS (PGS000018), Pruning and Thresholding (PGS000337), and an EnsemblePRS we developed. Additionally, we evaluated the burden of rare variants in lipid genes in cases and controls. Whole genome sequencing at 30× coverage was performed in 1067 coronary heart disease cases (mean age=59 years; 70.3% males) and 6170 controls (mean age=40 years; 43.5% males).

Results

The majority of PRSs performed well; odds ratio (OR) per 1 SD increase (OR1sd) was highest for PGS000337 (OR1sd=1.81, 95% CI [1.66–1.98], P=3.07×10−41). EnsemblePRS performed better than individual PRSs (OR1sd=1.8, 95% CI [1.66–1.96], P=5.89×10−44). The OR for the 10th decile versus the remaining deciles was >3.2 for PGS000337, PGS000296, PGS000018, and reached 4.58 for EnsemblePRS. Of 400 known genome-wide significant loci, 33 replicated at P<10−4. However, the 9p21 locus did not replicate. Six suggestive (P<10−5) new loci/genes with plausible biological function were identified (eg, CORO7, RBM47, PDE4D). The burden of rare functional variants in LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, and ANGPTL4 was greater in cases than controls.

Conclusions

Overall, we demonstrate that PRSs derived from European ancestry genome-wide association studies performed well in a Middle Eastern cohort, suggesting these could be used in the clinical setting while ancestry-specific PRSs are developed.

Other Information

Published in: Circulation - Genomic and Precision Medicine
License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
See article on publisher's website: https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.122.003712

Funding

Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.

History

Language

  • English

Publisher

Wolters Kluwer

Publication Year

  • 2022

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Hamad Medical Corporation
  • Heart Hospital - HMC
  • Hamad Bin Khalifa University
  • Qatar Computing Research Institute - HBKU