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Primary immunodeficiency and the microbiome

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journal contribution
submitted on 2023-06-08, 06:43 and posted on 2023-06-13, 11:48 authored by Maryam Ali Al-NesfMaryam Ali Al-Nesf, Morgan David, Mohamed-Ali Vidya

Purpose of review 

The current understanding of the relationship of the microbiota to clinical manifestation in patients with primary immunodeficiency, specifically the inflammatory processes caused by or that result in microbial dysbiosis, and their potential therapeutic options in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID), is the basis of this review.

Recent findings 

PIDs are heterogeneous diseases with variable presentations, genetic backgrounds, complications, and severity. The immune-mediators may be extrinsic, such as therapeutic regimens that patients are on, including immunoglobin, biologics, antibiotics and diet, or intrinsic, like cytokines, microRNA and microbiome. The microbiome in PID, in particular, appears to play a crucial role in helping the host's immune system maintain hemostatic control in the intestine. Many of the clinical manifestations and complications of PID may be attributed to inflammatory and immune dysregulatory processes connected to the imbalances of the diet-microbiota-host-immunity axis, as shown by data pointing to the loss of microbial diversity, dysbiosis, in PID.


The gut microbiome is a promising area of study in PID. Although the connection of the microbiome to humoral immunodeficiency is evident, the possibility of utilizing the association of humoral and cellular immunodeficiency and the microbiome for therapeutic benefit is still under investigation.

Other Information

Published in: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
See article on publisher's website: 


Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.

Hamad Medical Corporation, Medical Research Centre (MRC-01-17-029).



  • English


Wolters Kluwer

Publication Year

  • 2021

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Hamad Medical Corporation
  • Hamad General Hospital - HMC
  • Medical Research Center - HMC
  • Anti-Doping Laboratory Qatar

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