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Patterns and Effects of Admission Hyperglycemia and Inflammatory Response in Trauma Patients: A Prospective Clinical Study

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posted on 2022-11-22, 21:12 authored by Ayman El-Menyar, Mohammad Asim, Fayaz Mir, Suhail Hakim, Ahad Kanbar, Tariq Siddiqui, Basil Younis, Khalid Ahmed, Ismail Mahmood, Sajid Atique, Hisham Al Jogol, Ibrahim Taha, Fuad Mustafa, Mohammad Alabdallat, Husham Abdelrahman, Ruben Peralta, Hassan Al-Thani

Background

The constellation of the initial hyperglycemia, proinflammatory cytokines and severity of injury among trauma patients is understudied. We aimed to evaluate the patterns and effects of on-admission hyperglycemia and inflammatory response in a level 1 trauma center. We hypothesized that higher initial readings of blood glucose and cytokines are associated with severe injuries and worse in-hospital outcomes in trauma patients.

Methods

A prospective, observational study was conducted for adult trauma patients who were admitted and tested for on-admission blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18 and hs-CRP. Patients were categorized into four groups [non-diabetic normoglycemic, diabetic normoglycemic, diabetic hyperglycemic (DH) and stress-induced hyperglycemic (SIH)]. The inflammatory markers were measured on three time points (admission, 24 h and 48 h). Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to account for the correlation for the inflammatory markers. Pearson’s correlation test and logistic regression analysis were also performed.

Results

During the study period, 250 adult trauma patients were enrolled. Almost 13% of patients presented with hyperglycemia (50% had SIH and 50% had DH). Patients with SIH were younger, had significantly higher Injury Severity Score (ISS), higher IL-6 readings, prolonged hospital length of stay and higher mortality. The SIH group had lower Revised Trauma Score (p = 0.005), lower Trauma Injury Severity Score (p = 0.01) and lower GCS (p = 0.001). Patients with hyperglycemia had higher in-hospital mortality than the normoglycemia group (12.5% vs 3.7%; p = 0.02). A significant correlation was identified between the initial blood glucose level and serum lactate, IL-6, ISS and hospital length of stay. Overall rate of change in slope 88.54 (95% CI:-143.39–33.68) points was found more in hyperglycemia than normoglycemia group (p = 0.002) for IL-6 values, whereas there was no statistical significant change in slopes of age, gender and their interaction. The initial IL-6 levels correlated with ISS (r = 0.40, p = 0.001). On-admission hyperglycemia had an adjusted odds ratio 2.42 (95% CI: 1.076–5.447, p = 0.03) for severe injury (ISS > 12) after adjusting for age, shock index and blood transfusion.

Conclusions

In trauma patients, on-admission hyperglycemia correlates well with the initial serum IL-6 level and is associated with more severe injuries. Therefore, it could be a simple marker of injury severity and useful tool for patient triage and risk assessment.

Trial registration

This study was registered at the ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT02999386), retrospectively Registered on December 21, 2016. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02999386.

Other Information

Published in: World Journal of Surgery
License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
See article on publisher's website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-021-06190-5

History

Language

  • English

Publisher

Springer Science and Business Media LLC

Publication Year

  • 2021

Institution affiliated with

  • Hamad Medical Corporation

Methodology

A prospective, observational study was conducted for adult trauma patients who were admitted and tested for on-admission blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18 and hs-CRP. Patients were categorized into four groups [non-diabetic normoglycemic, diabetic normoglycemic, diabetic hyperglycemic (DH) and stress-induced hyperglycemic (SIH)]. The inflammatory markers were measured on three time points (admission, 24 h and 48 h). Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to account for the correlation for the inflammatory markers. Pearson’s correlation test and logistic regression analysis were also performed.

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