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Paragonimus infection: Rare manifestation with pericardial effusion: A Case report and Literature review

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journal contribution
submitted on 2023-11-02, 06:07 and posted on 2023-11-02, 08:11 authored by Ahmad Al Bishawi, Sarah Salameh, Ahsan Ehtesham, Ihab Massad, Suresh Arachchige, Ahmed Hatim, Issam Bozom, Maliha Thapur


Paragonimus, is a globally distributed trematode, with human disease limited to endemic regions. It can be transmitted to humans through ingestion of intermediate hosts that are crustaceans. Most symptomatic infections consist of pulmonary disease, and in aberrant migration of immature flukes, extrapulmonary manifestations may occur. These presentations are relatively uncommon and may affect various organs with atypical Clinico-radiological pathologies that are often challenging to diagnose. Pericardial involvement has scarcely been reported before. Furthermore, the management, clinical outcomes and potential complications of this involvement remain unclear.

Case report

Our patient is a 31-year-old Nepalese male who presented with abdominal distension and lower limb oedema. Initial work up revealed pericardial effusion, and analysis was suggestive of exudative lymphocytic effusion. Supported by positive QuantiFERON result along with his demographic data, the patient was treated presumptively as a case of tuberculous pericarditis, despite the negative initial Mycobacterial Tuberculosis work up. During follow up, the patient lacked clinical response and repeated echocardiography showed signs of tamponade with concomitant pleural effusion. subsequently video-assisted-thoracoscopy pericardial window along with pericardial and pleural biopsy were performed. Histopathological examination of the biopsied tissue revealed non-necrotizing granulomas containing a parasitic egg suggestive of Paragonimus. Fortunately, the patient received treatment with praziquantel and subsequently made good clinical recovery.


Diagnosis of extrapulmonary Paragonimus infection can be challenging given its rarity and clinical picture mimicking other infectious aetiologies. Pericardial involvement is seldom reported in the literature and clinical suspicion should be raised particularly when dealing with atypical presentations and relevant demographic data.

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Published in: IDCases
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  • English



Publication Year

  • 2021

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  • Hamad Medical Corporation

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