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Novel dual-mixed refrigerant precooling process for high capacity hydrogen liquefaction plants with superior performance

journal contribution
submitted on 2024-07-02, 05:20 and posted on 2024-07-02, 05:22 authored by Ahmad K. Sleiti, Wahib A. Al-Ammari, Saud Ghani

Liquid hydrogen is a superior alternative for the current energy storage methods and energy carriers as it has higher energy density and cleanliness. However, hydrogen liquefaction is an energy-intensive process. In particular, the precooling process of hydrogen consumes a tremendous portion of about 30 % of the total compression power of the plant. Several previous studies introduced various pure-refrigerant and single mixed refrigerant (SMR) precooling processes, however, their specific energy consumption (SEC) still very high especially at large-scale capacities. Therefore, this study presents a novel, efficient, and large-scale dual-mixed refrigerant (DMR) process to precool the hydrogen from 25 °C to -192 °C at a pressure of 21 bar. New heavyweight-based mixed refrigerant MR1 and lightweight-based mixed refrigerant MR2 are developed for the DMR process using a new-proposed systematic approach. The proposed DMR process is capable of handling a wide range of hydrogen flow from 100 TPD to 1000 TPD with SEC of 0.862 kWh/kgH2Feed, which is 20.33 % lower than the most competitive SMR process available in the literature. Based on the sensitivity analysis, further optimization of the DMR operating parameters reduced the SEC to 0.833 kWh/kgH2Feed at an optimal capacity of 500 TPD. Furthermore, the COP of the new process is improved by 14.47 % and the total annualized cost is reduced by 12.24 %. Compared to five other technologies that use the pure-refrigerant and other SMR precooling processes, the DMR reduces the SEC by 39.0 % to 63.0 %. The novel precooling process presented herein has the potential to drive the development of large-scale hydrogen liquefaction processes.

Other Information

Published in: Journal of Energy Storage
See article on publisher's website:


Qatar National Research Fund (NPRP-S 11S-1231-170155).



  • English



Publication Year

  • 2023

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Qatar University
  • College of Education - QU