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10.1007_s12016-022-08939-9.pdf (1.79 MB)

Microbial Dysbiosis Tunes the Immune Response Towards Allergic Disease Outcomes

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-11-22, 21:11 authored by Tracy Augustine, Manoj Kumar, Souhaila Al Khodor, Nicholas van Panhuys

The hygiene hypothesis has been popularized as an explanation for the rapid increase in allergic disease observed over the past 50 years. Subsequent epidemiological studies have described the protective effects that in utero and early life exposures to an environment high in microbial diversity have in conferring protective benefits against the development of allergic diseases. The rapid advancement in next generation sequencing technology has allowed for analysis of the diverse nature of microbial communities present in the barrier organs and a determination of their role in the induction of allergic disease. Here, we discuss the recent literature describing how colonization of barrier organs during early life by the microbiota influences the development of the adaptive immune system. In parallel, mechanistic studies have delivered insight into the pathogenesis of disease, by demonstrating the comparative effects of protective T regulatory (Treg) cells, with inflammatory T helper 2 (Th2) cells in the development of immune tolerance or induction of an allergic response. More recently, a significant advancement in our understanding into how interactions between the adaptive immune system and microbially derived factors play a central role in the development of allergic disease has emerged. Providing a deeper understanding of the symbiotic relationship between our microbiome and immune system, which explains key observations made by the hygiene hypothesis. By studying how perturbations that drive dysbiosis of the microbiome can cause allergic disease, we stand to benefit by delineating the protective versus pathogenic aspects of human interactions with our microbial companions, allowing us to better harness the use of microbial agents in the design of novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies.

Other Information

Published in: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
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  • English


Springer Science and Business Media LLC

Publication Year

  • 2022

Institution affiliated with

  • Sidra Medical and Research Center

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