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10.1007_s00414-022-02899-7.pdf (1.45 MB)

Machine learning and discriminant function analysis in the formulation of generic models for sex prediction using patella measurements

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-11-22, 21:12 authored by Mubarak A. Bidmos, Oladiran I. Olateju, Sabiha Latiff, Tawsifur Rahman, Muhammad E. H. Chowdhury

Sex prediction from bone measurements that display sexual dimorphism is one of the most important aspects of forensic anthropology. Some bones like the skull and pelvis display distinct morphological traits that are based on shape. These morphological traits which are sexually dimorphic across different population groups have been shown to provide an acceptably high degree of accuracy in the prediction of sex. A sample of 100 patella of Mixed Ancestry South Africans (MASA) was collected from the Dart collection. Six parameters: maximum height (maxh), maximum breadth (maxw), maximum thickness (maxt), the height of articular facet (haf), lateral articular facet breadth (lafb), and medial articular facet breath (mafb) were used in this study. Stepwise and direct discriminant function analyses were performed for measurements that exhibited significant differences between male and female mean measurements, and the “leave-one-out” approach was used for validation. Moreover, we have used eight classical machine learning techniques along with feature ranking techniques to identify the best feature combinations for sex prediction. A stacking machine learning technique was trained and validated to classify the sex of the subject. Here, we have used the top performing three ML classifiers as base learners and the predictions of these models were used as inputs to different machine learning classifiers as meta learners to make the final decision. The measurements of the patella of South Africans are sexually dimorphic and this observation is consistent with previous studies on the patella of different countries. The range of average accuracies obtained for pooled multivariate discriminant function equations is 81.9–84.2%, while the stacking ML technique provides 90.8% accuracy which compares well with those presented for previous studies in other parts of the world. In conclusion, the models proposed in this study from measurements of the patella of different population groups in South Africa are useful resent with reasonably high average accuracies.

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Published in: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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  • English


Springer Science and Business Media LLC

Publication Year

  • 2022

Institution affiliated with

  • Qatar University

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