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Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste-based geopolymers suited for use in 3-dimensional additive manufacturing

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journal contribution
submitted on 2023-11-22, 12:03 and posted on 2023-11-22, 13:35 authored by Namra Mir, Shoukat Alim Khan, Anil Kul, Oguzhan Sahin, Mustafa Sahmaran, Muammer Koc

This study performs a life cycle assessment (LCA) on a novel process to produce geopolymer binders for 3-dimensional additive manufacturing (3D-AM). The method utilises construction and demolition waste (CDW) [hollow brick (HB), red clay brick (RCB), roof tile (RT), and glass (G)] as a sustainable resource for geopolymers production to replace Portland cement. The life cycle assessment is performed to identify hotspots (relevant processes or raw material) to improve the environmental performance of the whole process at an early stage of development and to evaluate the environmental impacts of energy, water, and waste emissions at various points in the life cycle. The CDW requires crushing, milling/grinding, and mixing with electrical input to produce the geopolymer binders. The alkali activators' composition [6.25M NaOH, 10% Ca(OH)2] is selected as the base case for the assessment. The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) results show the environmental impacts to be 635 (kg CO2 eq.), 5.06 (kg SO2 eq.), 0.104 (kg N eq.), 3.14E-10 (kg N eq.), and 12.2 (CTUe.) for the global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), ozone layer depletion potential (ODP), and Ecotox air respectively for 1 m3 of geopolymer binder produced. Electricity contributes over 60% to the GWP, AP, EP, and Ecotox Air; therefore, a sensitivity analysis is performed with varying sources of renewable electricity. Also, compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC), the GWP for the geopolymer binder produced is 21% less.

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Published in: Cleaner Engineering and Technology
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Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.



  • English



Publication Year

  • 2022

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Hamad Bin Khalifa University
  • College of Science and Engineering - HBKU

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