LQG-Based Virtual Inertial Control of Islanded Microgrid Load Frequency Control and DoS Attack Vulnerability Analysis
The load frequency control (LFC) in modern power system like microgrid has turned out to be significantly challenging due to the high penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) and the consequent reduction of overall system inertia. The inverter-equipped RESs like solar and wind power generation units, besides the load variations can prompt sustained frequency fluctuations in microgrid and further lead to system instability, power outages, and even complete system blackout in the worst case. As a solution to the concerns of intermittent power source integration and resulting microgrid frequency instability, in this work, two robust LFC schemes using conventional linear quadratic gaussian (LQG) and modified LQG with linear quadratic integral (LQI) control schemes are proposed for secondary/battery energy storage system (BESS)-based auxiliary (virtual inertia (VI)) control of islanded/non-linear microgrid. The efficacy of the suggested control strategy is confirmed through MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations and by comparing with other different control schemes under various scenarios of distinct load and RES disturbance input profiles. The simulation results exhibited superior frequency regulation performance for the proposed control mechanisms over other types of control schemes. The proposed control schemes also ensure fast settling of frequency transients and help improve frequency stability under stochastic loads and random RES output power. In addition to the development of an effective robust controller, the vulnerability of the microgrid LFC system towards the denial of service (DoS) attack is analyzed for different control schemes. The vulnerability analysis is performed in the presence and absence of local auxiliary control loop and the remote secondary measurement communication channel is considered as the DoS attack point. The simulation results indicate that the local auxiliary control mechanism can not only help to improve frequency stability but also helps to add cyber-attack resilience to an extent when the secondary control loop is under attack.
Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.
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Institution affiliated with
- Qatar University
- College of Engineering - QU