Manara - Qatar Research Repository
10.1007_s11071-023-08480-0.pdf (10.26 MB)

Kuznetsov–Ma rogue wave clusters of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

Download (10.26 MB)
journal contribution
submitted on 2024-01-14, 08:31 and posted on 2024-01-16, 08:04 authored by Sarah Alwashahi, Najdan B. Aleksić, Milivoj R. Belić, Stanko N. Nikolić

In this work, we investigate rogue wave (RW) clusters of different shapes, composed of Kuznetsov–Ma solitons (KMSs) from the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) with Kerr nonlinearity. We present three classes of exact higher-order solutions on uniform background that are calculated using the Darboux transformation (DT) scheme with precisely chosen parameters. The first solution class is characterized by strong intensity narrow peaks that are periodic along the evolution x-axis, when the eigenvalues in DT scheme generate KMSs with commensurate frequencies. The second solution class exhibits a form of elliptical rogue wave clusters; it is derived from the first solution class when the first m evolution shifts in the nth-order DT scheme are nonzero and equal. We show that the high-intensity peaks built on KMSs of order n-2m periodically appear along the x-axis. This structure, considered as the central rogue wave, is enclosed by m ellipses consisting of a certain number of the first-order KMSs determined by the ellipse index and the solution order. The third class of KMS clusters is obtained when purely imaginary DT eigenvalues tend to some preset offset value higher than one, while keeping the x-shifts unchanged. We show that the central rogue wave at (0, 0) always retains its n - 2 m order. The n tails composed of the first-order KMSs are formed above and below the central maximum. When n is even, more complicated patterns are generated, with m and m - 1 loops above and below the central RW, respectively. Finally, we compute an additional solution class on a wavy background, defined by the Jacobi elliptic dnoidal function, which displays specific intensity patterns that are consistent with the background wavy perturbation. This work demonstrates an incredible power of the DT scheme in creating new solutions of the NLSE and a tremendous richness in form and function of those solutions.

Other Information

Published in: Nonlinear Dynamics
See article on publisher's website:


Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.



  • English


Springer Nature

Publication Year

  • 2023

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Texas A&M University at Qatar