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Health-related quality of life and its predictors among adults living with HIV/AIDS and receiving antiretroviral therapy in Pakistan

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posted on 2022-11-22, 21:14 authored by Ali Ahmed, Muhammad Saqlain, Naila Bashir, Juman Dujaili, Furqan Hashmi, Faizan Mazhar, Amjad Khan, Musarat Jabeen, Ali Blebil, Ahmed Awaisu

Background

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is considered to be the fourth 90 of UNAIDS 90-90-90 target to monitor the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART has significantly increased the life expectancy of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, the impact of chronic infection on HRQoL remains unclear, while factors influencing the HRQoL may vary from one country to another. The current study aimed to assess HRQoL and its associated factors among PLWHA receiving ART in Pakistan.

Methods

A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among PLWHA attending an ART centre of a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. HRQoL was assessed using a validated Urdu version of EuroQol 5 dimensions 3 level (EQ-5D-3L) and its Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS).

Results

Of the 602 patients included in the analyses, 59.5% (n = 358) reported no impairment in self-care, while 63.1% (n = 380) were extremely anxious/depressed. The overall mean EQ-5D utility score and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) score were 0.388 (SD: 0.41) and 66.20 (SD: 17.22), respectively. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that the factors significantly associated with HRQoL were: female gender; age  > 50 years; having primary and secondary education;  > 1 year since HIV diagnosis; HIV serostatus AIDS-converted; higher CD 4 T lymphocytes count; detectable viral load; and increased time to ART.

Conclusions

The current findings have shown that PLWHA in Pakistan adherent to ART had a good overall HRQoL, though with significantly higher depression. Some of the factors identified are amenable to institution-based interventions while mitigating depression to enhance the HRQoL of PLWHA in Pakistan. The HRQoL determined in this study could be useful for future economic evaluation studies for ART and in designing future interventions.

Other Information

Published in: Quality of Life Research
License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
See article on publisher's website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-021-02771-y

History

Language

  • English

Publisher

Springer Science and Business Media LLC

Publication Year

  • 2021

Institution affiliated with

  • Qatar University

Methodology

A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among PLWHA attending an ART centre of a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. HRQoL was assessed using a validated Urdu version of EuroQol 5 dimensions 3 level (EQ-5D-3L) and its Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS).

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