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From time-series to 2D images for building occupancy prediction using deep transfer learning

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journal contribution
submitted on 2023-11-02, 10:57 and posted on 2023-11-02, 11:36 authored by Aya Nabil Sayed, Yassine Himeur, Faycal Bensaali

Building occupancy information could aid energy preservation while simultaneously maintaining the end-user comfort level. Energy conservation becomes essential since energy resources are scarce and human dependency on appliances is only exponentially increasing. While intrusive sensors (i.e., cameras and microphones) can raise privacy concerns, this paper presents an innovative non-intrusive occupancy detection approach using environmental sensor data (e.g., temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2), and light sensors). The proposed scheme transforms multivariate time-series data into images for better encoding and extracting relevant features. The utilized image transformation method is based on data normalization and matrix conversion. Precisely, by representing time-series in 2D space, an encoding kernel can move in two directions while it can move only in one direction when applied to a 1D signal. Moreover, machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques are utilized to classify occupancy patterns. Several simulations are used to evaluate the approach; mainly, we investigated pre-trained and custom convolutional neural network (CNN) models. The latter attained an accuracy of 99.00%. Additionally, pixel data are extracted from the generated images and subjected to traditional ML methods. Throughout the numerous comparison settings, it was observed that the latter strategy provided the optimal balance of 99.42% accuracy performance and minimal training time across the occupancy datasets.

Other Information

Published in: Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence
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Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library



  • English



Publication Year

  • 2023

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Institution affiliated with

  • Qatar University
  • College of Engineering - QU