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Fanconi–Bickel Syndrome: A Review of the Mechanisms That Lead to Dysglycaemia

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submitted on 2024-06-11, 06:01 and posted on 2024-06-11, 09:02 authored by Sanaa Sharari, Mohamad Abou-Alloul, Khalid Hussain, Faiyaz Ahmad Khan

Accumulation of glycogen in the kidney and liver is the main feature of Fanconi–Bickel Syndrome (FBS), a rare disorder of carbohydrate metabolism inherited in an autosomal recessive manner due to SLC2A2 gene mutations. Missense, nonsense, frame-shift (fs), in-frame indels, splice site, and compound heterozygous variants have all been identified in SLC2A2 gene of FBS cases. Approximately 144 FBS cases with 70 different SLC2A2 gene variants have been reported so far. SLC2A2 encodes for glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) a low affinity facilitative transporter of glucose mainly expressed in tissues playing important roles in glucose homeostasis, such as renal tubular cells, enterocytes, pancreatic β-cells, hepatocytes and discrete regions of the brain. Dysfunctional mutations and decreased GLUT2 expression leads to dysglycaemia (fasting hypoglycemia, postprandial hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and rarely diabetes mellitus), hepatomegaly, galactose intolerance, rickets, and poor growth. The molecular mechanisms of dysglycaemia in FBS are still not clearly understood. In this review, we discuss the physiological roles of GLUT2 and the pathophysiology of mutants, highlight all of the previously reported SLC2A2 mutations associated with dysglycaemia, and review the potential molecular mechanisms leading to dysglycaemia and diabetes mellitus in FBS patients.

Other Information

Published in: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
See article on publisher's website: https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176286

Funding

Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation.

History

Language

  • English

Publisher

MDPI

Publication Year

  • 2020

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Hamad Bin Khalifa University
  • College of Health and Life Sciences - HBKU
  • Sidra Medicine