Manara - Qatar Research Repository
10.1109_tnsre.2022.3179327.pdf (3.22 MB)

Extended Reality “X-Reality” for Prosthesis Training of Upper-Limb Amputees: A Review on Current and Future Clinical Potential

Download (3.22 MB)
journal contribution
submitted on 2023-08-31, 07:06 and posted on 2023-09-21, 09:59 authored by Aya Gaballa, Reidner Santos Cavalcante, Edgard Lamounier, Alcimar Soares, John-John Cabibihan

The rejection rates of upper-limb prosthetic devices in adults are high, currently averaging 26% and 23% for body-powered and electric devices, respectively. While many factors influence acceptance, prosthesis training methods relying on novel virtual reality systems have been cited as a critical factor capable of increasing the likelihood of long-term, full-time use. Despite that, these implementations have not yet garnered widespread traction in the clinical setting, and their use remains immaterial. This review aims to explore the reasons behind this situation by identifying trends in existing research that seek to advance Extended Reality “X-Reality” systems for the sake of upper-limb prosthesis rehabilitation and, secondly, analyzing barriers and presenting potential pathways to deployment for successful adoption in the future. The search yielded 42 research papers that were divided into two categories. The first category included articles that focused on the technical aspect of virtual prosthesis training. Articles in the second category utilize user evaluation procedures to ensure applicability in a clinical environment. The review showed that 75% of articles that conducted whole system testing experimented with non-immersive virtual systems. Furthermore, there is a shortage of experiments performed with amputee subjects. From the large-scale studies analyzed, 71% of those recruited solely non-disabled participants. This paper shows that X-Reality technologies for prosthesis rehabilitation of upper-limb amputees carry significant benefits. Nevertheless, much still must be done so that the technology reaches widespread clinical use.

Other Information

Published in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
See article on publisher's website:


Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.



  • English



Publication Year

  • 2022

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Institution affiliated with

  • Qatar University
  • College of Engineering - QU