Manara - Qatar Research Repository
behavsci-14-00305.pdf (949 kB)

Exploring Physical Education Teachers’ Intention and Perceived Constraints in Offering Online Lessons Using the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Multi-Country Analysis

Download (949 kB)
journal contribution
submitted on 2024-05-15, 08:26 and posted on 2024-05-15, 08:26 authored by Ferman Konukman, Bijen Filiz, Farhad Moghimehfar, Mona Adviento Maghanoy, Kim Graber, Kevin Andrew Richards, Christopher John Kinder, Yee Cheng Kueh, Ngien-Siong Chin, Garry Kuan, Gin Shi Jinyu

Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this study aimed to determine the influence of Physical Education (PE) teachers’ attitudes, their perceived behavioral control, and the influence of subjective norms on their intention and constraints (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural) to offer a high-quality class based on best practices to deliver PE lessons online during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional, multi-country survey study recruited PE teachers from five countries (China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Turkey, and the United States). A total of 928 online questionnaires were used in the analysis. In terms of the overall intention to teach online, our findings showed that American and Filipino teachers had higher levels of intention to continue teaching online. In contrast, Turkish, Malaysian, and Chinese teachers showed a lower interest. Moreover, Malaysian teachers had more intrapersonal constraints while the teachers in the other four countries were not as restrained intrapersonally. The results highlight the significant influence of perceived behavioral control and attitudes on PE teachers’ intention to deliver online courses. Constraints to online teaching had a considerably large negative impact on attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Based on the results, the proposed extension to the theory of planned behavior was an appropriate framework for understanding the behavioral intent of PE teachers.

Other Information

Published in: Behavioral Sciences
See article on publisher's website:


Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.



  • English



Publication Year

  • 2024

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Qatar University
  • College of Education - QU

Usage metrics

    Qatar University



    Ref. manager