Manara - Qatar Research Repository
10.1016_j.oceaneng.2023.115850.pdf (12.37 MB)

Enhancing subsea asset performance: Investigating the biomimetic functionality of the Mushroom Reef design in hydrodynamics, stability, and sedimentation

Download (12.37 MB)
journal contribution
submitted on 2024-01-03, 05:56 and posted on 2024-01-14, 06:08 authored by Bruno Welter Giraldes, Ananth Wuppukondur, Hamad S. Al-Mohannadi, Khalid Bashir, Maryam Abdulla, Eduardo W. Giraldes, Sam Heally, Eduardo Mello, Dinesh Mathew, Pedro Range, Aboobacker V. Mohammed, Ponnumony Vethamony, Tom Baldock

In this study, laboratory and in situ experiments were performed to assess the stability of the Mushroom Forest Artificial Reef (MFAR) against the hydrodynamic forces of waves and currents and its functionality to avoid sedimentation. Physical modelling was performed in wave flume (waves only) and a long channel (currents only) with a smooth flat bed and a sediment bed. The results illustrated the positive and negative aspects, and then some modifications were made to the in situ experiments. A total of 130 prototype units were produced and deployed at an offshore site in the Arabian Gulf. Sediment traps were installed at the top and base of the mushroom units, and underwater visual assessments were performed to evaluate the stability and sediment behaviour around the studied reefs. The results demonstrated the stability of the units under hydrodynamic loading, with meagre resistance to current displacement (drag forces), with high stability (95% remained vertical), with horizontal vortices leading the sedimentation patterns, and with 46 times less sedimentation at the top than at the base. Thus encouraging coral growth at the mushroom's top with fewer sedimentation risks. In conclusion, MFAR was validated as a blue engineering technology despite some limitations.

Other Information

Published in: Ocean Engineering
See article on publisher's website:

Additional institutions affiliated with: GHD Doha, Qatar and SMEET Precast W.L.L.


Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.



  • English



Publication Year

  • 2023

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Qatar University
  • Environmental Science Center - QU
  • Qatargas Operating Company Limited

Geographic coverage

Arabian Gulf