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EndMT Regulation by Small RNAs in Diabetes-Associated Fibrotic Conditions: Potential Link With Oxidative Stress

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submitted on 2023-06-25, 07:44 and posted on 2023-07-04, 06:03 authored by Roberta Giordo, Yusra M. A. Ahmed, Hilda Allam, Salah Abusnana, Lucia Pappalardo, Gheyath K. Nasrallah, Arduino Aleksander Mangoni, Gianfranco Pintus

Diabetes-associated complications, such as retinopathy, nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, and atherosclerosis, the main consequences of long-term hyperglycemia, often lead to organ dysfunction, disability, and increased mortality. A common denominator of these complications is the myofibroblast-driven excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. Although fibroblast appears to be the primary source of myofibroblasts, other cells, including endothelial cells, can generate myofibroblasts through a process known as endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT). During EndMT, endothelial cells lose their typical phenotype to acquire mesenchymal features, characterized by the development of invasive and migratory abilities as well as the expression of typical mesenchymal products such as α-smooth muscle actin and type I collagen. EndMT is involved in many chronic and fibrotic diseases and appears to be regulated by complex molecular mechanisms and different signaling pathways. Recent evidence suggests that small RNAs, in particular microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), are crucial mediators of EndMT. Furthermore, EndMT and miRNAs are both affected by oxidative stress, another key player in the pathophysiology of diabetic fibrotic complications. In this review, we provide an overview of the primary redox signals underpinning the diabetic-associated fibrotic process. Then, we discuss the current knowledge on the role of small RNAs in the regulation of EndMT in diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, and atherosclerosis and highlight potential links between oxidative stress and the dyad small RNAs-EndMT in driving these pathological states. 

Other Information

Published in: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
See article on publisher's website: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.683594 

Funding

Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.

History

Language

  • English

Publisher

Frontiers

Publication Year

  • 2021

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Qatar University
  • Biomedical Research Center - QU
  • Qatar University Health - QU
  • College of Health Sciences - QU HEALTH

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