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Emerging trends of carbon emissions and foreign direct investment: accounting for ecological footprints, renewable energy, globalization, and technological innovations in BRICS

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submitted on 2024-01-03, 10:42 and posted on 2024-01-03, 10:43 authored by Umar Nawaz Kayani, Ismat Nasim, Ahmet Faruk Aysan, Farrukh Bashir, Umer Iqbal

This paper investigates the intricate interplay between carbon emissions and foreign direct investment within the context of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) for the period spanning 2000 to 2022. In our comprehensive analysis, we incorporate ecological footprint, renewable energy, globalization, and technological innovations as exogenous variables. Employing a system of simultaneous equations across the BRICS panel, we aim to fully elucidate the proposed relationships. Our empirical findings underscore the following key insights: foreign direct investment, technological innovations, and the adoption of renewable energy sources significantly contribute to the mitigation of carbon emissions in these selected nations. However, it is essential to note that ecological footprints exhibit a positive association with carbon emissions, raising concerns on two fronts: escalating environmental degradation and increased land pressure, both of which contribute to rising ecological footprints in BRICS countries. Additionally, our analysis reveals that foreign direct investment is influenced by its capacity to reduce carbon emissions and bolster renewable energy adoption, while globalization amplifies investment trends within the BRICS nations. To address the environmental repercussions of mining activities, it is imperative to implement stringent control and regulation measures, given their potential adverse impacts, including soil pollution, acid mine drainage, erosion, biodiversity loss, excessive water resource consumption, and wastewater disposal challenges. Nevertheless, proactive steps such as recycling mining waste, adopting environmentally friendly mining equipment, combatting illegal mining, and enhancing overall mining sustainability offer promising avenues to mitigate the environmental footprint of mining operations.

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Published in: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
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Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.



  • English


Springer Nature

Publication Year

  • 2023

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Hamad Bin Khalifa University
  • College of Islamic Studies - HBKU