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10.1186_s13046-021-01872-3.pdf (1.23 MB)

Emerging dynamics pathways of response and resistance to PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade: tackling uncertainty by confronting complexity

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journal contribution
submitted on 2024-05-22, 07:11 and posted on 2024-05-22, 07:12 authored by Allan Relecom, Maysaloun Merhi, Varghese Inchakalody, Shahab Uddin, Darawan Rinchai, Davide Bedognetti, Said Dermime

Immune checkpoint inhibitors provide considerable therapeutic benefit in a range of solid cancers as well as in a subgroup of hematological malignancies. Response rates are however suboptimal, and despite considerable efforts, predicting response to immune checkpoint inhibitors ahead of their administration in a given patient remains elusive. The study of the dynamics of the immune system and of the tumor under immune checkpoint blockade brought insight into the mechanisms of action of these therapeutic agents. Equally relevant are the mechanisms of adaptive resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors that have been uncovered through this approach. In this review, we discuss the dynamics of the immune system and of the tumor under immune checkpoint blockade emanating from recent studies on animal models and humans. We will focus on mechanisms of action and of resistance conveying information predictive of therapeutic response.

Other Information

Published in: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research
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Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.



  • English


Springer Nature

Publication Year

  • 2021

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Hamad Medical Corporation
  • National Center for Cancer Care and Research - HMC
  • Interim Translational Research Institute - HMC
  • Dermatology Institute - HMC
  • Sidra Medicine
  • Hamad Bin Khalifa University
  • College of Health and Life Sciences - HBKU

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