Manara - Qatar Research Repository
2 files

Ecotoxicological Assessment of Thermally- and Hydrogen-Reduced Graphene Oxide/TiO2 Photocatalytic Nanocomposites Using the Zebrafish Embryo Model

journal contribution
submitted on 2024-03-12, 05:54 and posted on 2024-03-12, 05:54 authored by Halema Al-Kandari, Nadin Younes, Ola Al-Jamal, Zain Z. Zakaria, Huda Najjar, Farah Alserr, Gianfranco Pintus, Maha A. Al-Asmakh, Aboubakr M. Abdullah, Gheyath K. Nasrallah

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have recently attracted great interest in water pollution management. Using the zebrafish embryo model, we investigated the environmental impacts of two thermally (RGOTi)- and hydrogen (H2RGOTi)-reduced graphene oxide/TiO2 semiconductor photocatalysts recently employed in AOPs. For this purpose, acutoxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurobehavioral toxicity, hematopoietic toxicity, and hatching rate were determinate. For the RGOTi, the no observed effect concentration (NOEC, mortality/teratogenicity score <20%) and the median lethal concentration (LC50) were <400 and 748.6 mg/L, respectively. H2RGOTi showed a NOEC similar to RGOTi. However, no significant mortality was detected at all concentrations used in the acutoxicity assay (up to1000 mg/L), thus indicating a hypothetical LC50 higher than 1000 mg/L. According to the Fish and Wildlife Service Acute Toxicity Rating Scale, RGOTi can be classified as “practically not toxic” and H2RGOTi as “relatively harmless”. However, both nanocomposites should be used with caution at concentration higher than the NOEC (400 mg/L), in particular RGOTi, which significantly (i) caused pericardial and yolk sac edema; (ii) decreased the hatching rate, locomotion, and hematopoietic activities; and (iii) affected the heart rate. Indeed, the aforementioned teratogenic phenotypes were less devastating in H2RGOTi-treated embryos, suggesting that the hydrogen-reduced graphene oxide/TiO2 photocatalysts may be more ecofriendly than the thermally-reduced ones.

Other Information

Published in: Nanomaterials
See article on publisher's website:


Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.



  • English



Publication Year

  • 2019

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Qatar University
  • Biomedical Research Center - QU
  • College of Engineering - QU
  • Center for Advanced Materials - QU
  • Qatar University Health - QU
  • College of Health Sciences - QU HEALTH

Usage metrics

    Qatar University



    Ref. manager