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10.1016_j.engappai.2022.105254.pdf (1.04 MB)

Deep and transfer learning for building occupancy detection: A review and comparative analysis

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journal contribution
submitted on 2023-12-04, 10:13 and posted on 2023-12-04, 10:53 authored by Aya Nabil Sayed, Yassine Himeur, Faycal Bensaali

The building internet of things (BIoT) is quite a promising concept for curtailing energy consumption, reducing costs, and promoting building transformation. Besides, integrating artificial intelligence (AI) into the BIoT is essential for data analysis and intelligent decision-making. Thus, data-driven approaches to infer occupancy patterns usage are gaining growing interest in BIoT applications. Typically, analyzing big occupancy data gathered by BIoT networks helps significantly identify the causes of wasted energy and recommend corrective actions. Within this context, building occupancy data aids in the improvement of the efficacy of energy management systems, allowing the reduction of energy consumption while maintaining occupant comfort. Occupancy data might be collected using a variety of devices. Among those devices are optical/thermal cameras, smart meters, environmental sensors such as carbon dioxide (CO2), and passive infrared (PIR). Even though the latter methods are less precise, they have generated considerable attention owing to their inexpensive cost and low invasive nature. This article provides an in-depth survey of the strategies used to analyze sensor data and determine occupancy. The article’s primary emphasis is on reviewing deep learning (DL), and transfer learning (TL) approaches for occupancy detection. This work investigates occupancy detection methods to develop an efficient system for processing sensor data while providing accurate occupancy information. Moreover, the paper conducted a comparative study of the readily available algorithms for occupancy detection to determine the optimal method in regards to training time and testing accuracy. The main concerns affecting the current occupancy detection system in terms of privacy and precision were thoroughly discussed. For occupancy detection, several directions were provided to avoid or reduce privacy problems by employing forthcoming technologies such as edge devices, Federated learning, and Blockchain-based IoT.

Other Information

Published in: Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence
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Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.



  • English



Publication Year

  • 2022

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Qatar University
  • College of Engineering - QU