Manara - Qatar Research Repository
10.1136_bmj.m3155.pdf (884.25 kB)

Children’s prolonged exposure to the toxic stress of war trauma in the Middle East

Download (884.25 kB)
journal contribution
submitted on 2024-05-14, 12:16 and posted on 2024-05-14, 12:25 authored by Muthanna Samara, Sara Hammuda, Panos Vostanis, Basel El-Khodary, Nader Al-Dewik

The Middle East has seen several wars since the second world war—between Arab states and Israel, between 1948 and 1982; the Lebanese Civil War, from 1975 to 1990; wars in Iraq beginning in 1980 and with continuing unrest to the present day; the invasion of Kuwait in 1990; and the North Yemen Civil War, from 1962 to 1970. In late 2010, anti-government protests throughout the Middle East gave rise to the so called Arab Spring. Subsequent Libyan, Syrian, and Yemeni civil wars have been violent and prolonged. In addition, Palestinians in the Gaza Strip have experienced three wars in the past 12 years and have been living under a blockade since 2007.

Other Information

Published in: BMJ
See article on publisher's website:



  • English



Publication Year

  • 2020

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Hamad Bin Khalifa University
  • College of Health and Life Sciences - HBKU
  • Hamad Medical Corporation
  • Academic Health System - HMC
  • Interim Translational Research Institute - HMC

Geographic coverage

Middle East