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Artificial intelligence based anomaly detection of energy consumption in buildings: A review, current trends and new perspectives

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submitted on 2023-09-05, 07:07 and posted on 2023-09-19, 07:08 authored by Yassine Himeur, Khalida Ghanem, Abdullah Alsalemi, Faycal Bensaali, Abbes Amira

Enormous amounts of data are being produced everyday by sub-meters and smart sensors installed in residential buildings. If leveraged properly, that data could assist end-users, energy producers and utility companies in detecting anomalous power consumption and understanding the causes of each anomaly. Therefore, anomaly detection could stop a minor problem becoming overwhelming. Moreover, it will aid in better decision-making to reduce wasted energy and promote sustainable and energy efficient behavior. In this regard, this paper is an in-depth review of existing anomaly detection frameworks for building energy consumption based on artificial intelligence. Specifically, an extensive survey is presented, in which a comprehensive taxonomy is introduced to classify existing algorithms based on different modules and parameters adopted, such as machine learning algorithms, feature extraction approaches, anomaly detection levels, computing platforms and application scenarios. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first review article that discusses anomaly detection in building energy consumption. Moving forward, important findings along with domain-specific problems, difficulties and challenges that remain unresolved are thoroughly discussed, including the absence of: (i) precise definitions of anomalous power consumption, (ii) annotated datasets, (iii) unified metrics to assess the performance of existing solutions, (iv) platforms for reproducibility and (v) privacy-preservation. Following, insights about current research trends are discussed to widen the applications and effectiveness of the anomaly detection technology before deriving future directions attracting significant attention. This article serves as a comprehensive reference to understand the current technological progress in anomaly detection of energy consumption based on artificial intelligence.

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Published in: Applied Energy
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Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library



  • English



Publication Year

  • 2021

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Institution affiliated with

  • Qatar University
  • College of Engineering - QU