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Artificial intelligence-enhanced electrocardiography for accurate diagnosis and management of cardiovascular diseases

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submitted on 2024-02-07, 05:01 and posted on 2024-02-07, 05:01 authored by Muhammad Ali Muzammil, Saman Javid, Azra Khan Afridi, Rupini Siddineni, Mariam Shahabi, Muhammad Haseeb, F.N.U. Fariha, Satesh Kumar, Sahil Zaveri, Abdulqadir J. Nashwan

Electrocardiography (ECG), improved by artificial intelligence (AI), has become a potential technique for the precise diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The conventional ECG is a frequently used, inexpensive, and easily accessible test that offers important information about the physiological and anatomical state of the heart. However, the ECG can be interpreted differently by humans depending on the interpreter's level of training and experience, which could make diagnosis more difficult. Using AI, especially deep learning convolutional neural networks (CNNs), to look at single, continuous, and intermittent ECG leads that has led to fully automated AI models that can interpret the ECG like a human, possibly more accurately and consistently. These AI algorithms are effective non-invasive biomarkers for cardiovascular illnesses because they can identify subtle patterns and signals in the ECG that may not be readily apparent to human interpreters. The use of AI in ECG analysis has several benefits, including the quick and precise detection of problems like arrhythmias, silent cardiac illnesses, and left ventricular failure. It has the potential to help doctors with interpretation, diagnosis, risk assessment, and illness management. Aside from that, AI-enhanced ECGs have been demonstrated to boost the identification of heart failure and other cardiovascular disorders, particularly in emergency department settings, allowing for quicker and more precise treatment options. The use of AI in cardiology, however, has several limitations and obstacles, despite its potential. The effective implementation of AI-powered ECG analysis is limited by issues such as systematic bias. Biases based on age, gender, and race result from unbalanced datasets. A model's performance is impacted when diverse demographics are inadequately represented. Potentially disregarded age-related ECG variations may result from skewed age data in training sets. ECG patterns are affected by physiological differences between the sexes; a dataset that is inclined toward one sex may compromise the accuracy of the others. Genetic variations influence ECG readings, so racial diversity in datasets is significant. Furthermore, issues such as inadequate generalization, regulatory barriers, and interpretability concerns contribute to deployment difficulties. The lack of robustness in models when applied to disparate populations frequently hinders their practical applicability. The exhaustive validation required by regulatory requirements causes a delay in deployment. Difficult models that are not interpretable erode the confidence of clinicians. Diverse dataset curation, bias mitigation strategies, continuous validation across populations, and collaborative efforts for regulatory approval are essential for the successful deployment of AI ECG in clinical settings and must be undertaken to address these issues. To guarantee a safe and successful deployment in clinical practice, the use of AI in cardiology must be done with a thorough understanding of the algorithms and their limits. In summary, AI-enhanced electrocardiography has enormous potential to improve the management of cardiovascular illness by delivering precise and timely diagnostic insights, aiding clinicians, and enhancing patient outcomes. Further study and development are required to fully realize AI's promise for improving cardiology practices and patient care as technology continues to advance.

Other Information

Published in: Journal of Electrocardiology
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
See article on publisher's website: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2024.01.006

Funding

Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.

History

Language

  • English

Publisher

Elsevier

Publication Year

  • 2024

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Hamad Medical Corporation

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