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An investigation into the potential action of polyphenols against human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide aggregation in type 2 diabetes

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journal contribution
submitted on 2023-11-07, 06:26 and posted on 2023-11-07, 11:43 authored by Anns Mahboob, Degiri Kalana Lasanga Senevirathne, Pradipta Paul, Faisal Nabi, Rizwan Hasan Khan, Ali Chaari

Type 2 diabetes (T2D), a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, results in significant disease burden and financial costs globally. Whilst the majority of T2D cases seem to have a genetic basis, non-genetic modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for T2D include obesity, diet, physical activity and lifestyle, smoking, age, ethnicity, and mental stress. In healthy individuals, insulin secretion from pancreatic islet β-cells is responsible for keeping blood glucose levels within normal ranges. T2D patients suffer from multifactorial onset of β-cell dysfunction and/or loss of β-cell mass owing to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Most predominantly however, and the focus of this review, it is the aggregation and misfolding of human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (hIAPP, also known as amylin), which is detrimental to β-cell function and health. Whilst hIAPP is found in healthy individuals, its misfolded version is cytotoxic and able to induce β-cell dysfunction and/or death through various mechanisms including membrane changes in β-cell causing influx of calcium ions, arresting complete granule membrane recovery and ER stress. There are several existing therapeutics for T2D. However, there is a need for alternative or adjunct therapies for T2D with milder adverse effects and greater availability. Foremost among the potential natural therapeutics are polyphenols. Extensive data from studies evaluating the potential of polyphenols to inhibit hIAPP aggregation and disassemble aggregated hIAPP are promising. Moreover, in-vivo, and in-silico studies also highlight the potential effects of polyphenols against hIAPP aggregation and mitigation of larger pathological effects of T2D. Whilst there have been some promising clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of polyphenols, extensive further clinical studies and in-vitro studies evaluating the mechanisms of action and ideal doses for many of these compounds are required. The need for these studies is made more important by the postulated link between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and T2D pathophysiology given the similar aggregation process of their respective amyloid proteins, which evokes thoughts of cross-reactive polyphenols which can be effective for both AD and T2D patients.

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Published in: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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  • English



Publication Year

  • 2023

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This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Institution affiliated with

  • Weill Cornell Medicine - Qatar