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Adherence as a Predictor of Glycemic Control Among Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes: A Retrospective Study Using Real-world Evidence

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submitted on 2023-11-23, 06:48 and posted on 2023-11-23, 09:46 authored by Sohayla A. Ibrahim, Maguy Saffouh El Hajj, Yaw B. Owusu, Maryam Al-Khaja, Amel Khalifa, Dalia Ahmed, Ahmed Awaisu


Metabolic control among adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is generally poor. Nonadherence is a contributor to this poor glycemic control, leading to adverse outcomes. The findings of studies reporting the association between adherence and glycemic control are conflicting. This study aimed to assess the level of adherence among adolescents with T1DM and its relationship with glycemic control.


This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study that was conducted at Sidra Medicine, a state-of-the-art tertiary health care facility for women and children in Qatar. Mean blood or interstitial glucose monitoring frequency (BGMF) was used to assess adherence level among adolescents with T1DM, whereas glycemic control was assessed via documented glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Adolescents who had a mean BGMF of ≥4 checks per day were considered adherent, and those who had an HbA1c level of <7% were considered as having controlled diabetes. Correlational and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between adherence and glycemic control, incorporating other covariates into the model.


The rate of adherence among adolescents with T1DM in Qatar was 40.9%. Adherent adolescents had significantly lower median HbA1c levels compared with nonadherent adolescents (9.0% vs. 9.7%; P = 0.002). A significant negative correlation was found between BGMF and HbA1c level (correlation coefficient rs = −0.325; P < .001). Approximately 97% of nonadherent adolescents compared with 87% of adherent adolescents had suboptimal diabetes control (HbA1c ≥7%) (P = .016). Furthermore, nonadherent adolescents were 78% less likely to have controlled diabetes compared with adherent adolescents (adjusted odds ratio = 0.221; 95% CI, 0.063−0.778; P = 0.019). The combined effect of the determinants of glycemic control among adolescents with T1DM that were included in the multiple regression model was able to explain approximately 9% of the variances in glycemic control (Cox and Snell R2 = 0.092).


The current findings suggest that nonadherence was highly prevalent among adolescents with T1DM and was a significant independent predictor of glycemic control, explaining 9% of the variability. This finding warrants further exploration of other possible predictors of poor glycemic control among the adolescent population. Comprehensive interventions, including educational, technological, and health service delivery aspects, aimed at improving adherence and ultimately optimizing glycemic control are warranted in adolescents with T1DM.

Other Information

Published in: Clinical Therapeutics
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Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library.



  • English



Publication Year

  • 2022

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Qatar University
  • Qatar University Health - QU
  • College of Pharmacy - QU HEALTH
  • Sidra Medicine

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