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A Scoping Review to Find Out Worldwide COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Its Underlying Determinants

journal contribution
submitted on 2024-04-29, 05:38 and posted on 2024-04-29, 05:39 authored by Md. Rafiul Biswas, Mahmood Saleh Alzubaidi, Uzair Shah, Alaa A. Abd-Alrazaq, Zubair Shah

Background: The current crisis created by the coronavirus pandemic is impacting all facets of life. Coronavirus vaccines have been developed to prevent coronavirus infection and fight the pandemic. Since vaccines might be the only way to prevent and stop the spread of coronavirus. The World Health Organization (WHO) has already approved several vaccines, and many countries have started vaccinating people. Misperceptions about vaccines persist despite the evidence of vaccine safety and efficacy. Objectives: To explore the scientific literature and find the determinants for worldwide COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy as reported in the literature. Methods: PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines were followed to conduct a scoping review of literature on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and willingness to vaccinate. Several databases (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar) were searched to find relevant articles. Intervention- (i.e., COVID-19 vaccine) and outcome- (i.e., hesitancy) related terms were used to search in these databases. The search was conducted on 22 February 2021. Both forward and backward reference lists were checked to find further studies. Three reviewers worked independently to select articles and extract data from selected literature. Studies that used a quantitative survey to measure COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and acceptance were included in this review. The extracted data were synthesized following the narrative approach and results were represented graphically with appropriate figures and tables. Results: 82 studies were included in this scoping review of 882 identified from our search. Sometimes, several studies had been performed in the same country, and it was observed that vaccine hesitancy was high earlier and decreased over time with the hope of vaccine efficacy. People in different countries had varying percentages of vaccine uptake (28–86.1%), vaccine hesitancy (10–57.8%), vaccine refusal (0–24%). The most common determinants affecting vaccination intention include vaccine efficacy, vaccine side effects, mistrust in healthcare, religious beliefs, and trust in information sources. Additionally, vaccination intentions are influenced by demographic factors such as age, gender, education, and region. Conclusions: The underlying factors of vaccine hesitancy are complex and context-specific, varying across time and socio-demographic variables. Vaccine hesitancy can also be influenced by other factors such as health inequalities, socioeconomic disadvantages, systemic racism, and level of exposure to misinformation online, with some factors being more dominant in certain countries than others. Therefore, strategies tailored to cultures and socio-psychological factors need to be developed to reduce vaccine hesitancy and aid informed decision-making.

Other Information

Published in: Vaccines
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  • English



Publication Year

  • 2021

License statement

This Item is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Institution affiliated with

  • Hamad Bin Khalifa University
  • College of Science and Engineering - HBKU

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